ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGEDAMAGE/SYMPTOMSPREVENTIONCONTROL
Construction Damagecaused by physical injury to trunk and crown, including split and broken branches; soil compaction of root zone; or smothering of roots with added soilclearly mark and flag all trees to be preserved during constructionproperly prune damaged branches; smooth edges of wounds

damage may not become obvious for 1 to 2 yearsfence off trees as far out as branches reachsoak trees once weekly by using a soaker hose or regular hose on a slow trickle for one hour

trees wilt and grow poorlydo not pile soil against trunks or raise soil level over rootsaerate soil and mulch around tree

tips of branches may die backno heavy equipment or supplies travelling over or stored on rootscontact a certifed arborist

evergreens may produce a large crop of cones before dyingcontact a certified arborist for tree protection plan
Lawnmower Damagehorizontal cuts in bark of treeuse hand tools to clip close to trunkprevention is the best treatment

repeated injuries may cause branches to die back and might kill treeplace mulch or alternative, low-maintenance ground covers around trunk for a no mow zonecarefully cut away all damaged bark and trim jagged edges of cut

injuries allow diseases and pests to enter
Lightning Damageoften long scars running length of trunk to groundfor tall and/or valuable trees, have a professional install a copper lightning protectorremove damaged branches and bark

some cases, only yellowing of leaves and branches dying backtrim jagged edges of would or loose bark

water thoroughly
Nitrogen Deficiencyoccurs commonly on sandy soilsreplace mulch around tree as neededwhen symptoms arise, water with compost tea or fish emulsion and apply supplemental nitrogen fertilizer such as bloodmeal around roots

lower, older leaves first become pale green to yellow; later, entire plant may become lightercompost as necessaryspraying leaves with fish emulsion gives trees an immediate boost

flowers turn yellow and drop, and fruits are stunted and woody
Iron Deficiencyyoungest leaves on upper shoots are first affected, becoming light yellow to nearly white between veinsselect species tolerant of alkaline soilsat first sign of yellowing leaves sprinkle compost onto surface of soil as far out as the edge of the tree canopy

plants usually stunteddo not over lime or plant too close to concrete foundations

appears when soil is too alkaline or because it has been over limed
Salt Damagesalt spray blown up from passing cars can damage leavesprotect trees along roads by erecting a barrier to deflect salt spray from carssoak entire root area of trees once weekly by using a soaker hose or regular hose on a slow trickle for one hour

salt-laden melt-water can produce toxic conditions around rootsuse sand or sawdust instead of salt on slippery sidewalks

symptoms include brown leaf edges, early leaf drop, shoot diebackplant salt-tolerant species along walkways and roads
Waterlogged Soilroots die back and eventually rot as fungi and bacteria attack dying tissueselect species tolerant to waterlogged soilimprove drainage and soil conditions

small leaves, stunted shoots, reduced tree growthprior to planting, mix in compost and other organic matter to improve drainage in clay soils
Lack of Waterleaves wilt, droop and turn yellow or browncommonly occurs as a result of construction, causing root loss, or hard surface installation placed too close to tree - see ""Construction Damage""remove hard surface at base of tree

leaves may also looked scorched, brown at tips and along leaf edgesprovide regular deep watering - twice a week
Winter Injurylarge brown patches on leavesplant native species, which are accutomed to our wintersprune back damaged tissue in spring

branch tips or entire shoots may diebackensure soil is well watered in fall before cold weather

evergreens may dry out and turn brown under freezing conditions
Girdling Rootsroots grow around other roots or main stem of tree and cut off or restrict movement of water and nutrients within the treeproper planting is most important preventative measurecontact qualified professional to remove visible girdling roots - this is best done 4-6 years after transplanting

lack of flare at base of tree, reduced leaf size, early fall colour, dieback of branchesdo not pile up mulch around tree trunk - mulch should be applied in a donut-shape 3""-4"" in depthmaintain plant vigour to help tree deal with this stress

ensure adequate rooting space and prevent soil compaction around tree
Juglonestunted growth, wilting or death of other trees and plants located near members of the walnut familyselect Juglone-tolerant species

walnut trees produce a chemical called Juglone that affects the growth of other plants